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Radioactive Waste: An Introduction…………………………….. 1
High-Level Radioactive Waste……………………………………. 7
What is high-level waste? ……………………………………… 7
What is the role of NRC? ………………………………………. 7
How hazardous is high-level waste?……………………….. 7
How and where is the waste stored? ………………………. 9
How much high-level waste is there? ……………………. 13
How and where will high-level waste be disposed of? ….. 14
NRC headquarters offices are located in Rockville, Maryland.Contents
Low-Level Radioactive Waste ………………………………….. 19
What is low-level waste?……………………………………… 19
Where does low-level waste come from? ………………. 20
What is the role of NRC? …………………………………….. 24
How hazardous is low-level waste? ………………………. 24
How is low-level waste stored? …………………………….. 25
How and where is low-level waste disposed of?……… 26
Mill Tailings ……………………………………………………………. 31
Additional Information …………………………………………….. 34Radioactive Waste: Production, Storage, Disposal
Radioactive Waste: An Introduction
Radioactive wastes are the leftovers from the use of nuclear
materials for the production of electricity, diagnosis and treatment of disease, and other purposes.
The materials are either naturally occurring or man-made.
Certain kinds of radioactive materials, and the wastes produced from using these materials, are subject to regulatory
control by the federal government or the states.
The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for radioactive waste related to nuclear weapons production and certain research activities. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(NRC) and some states regulate commercial radioactive
waste that results from the production of electricity and other
non-military uses of nuclear material.
Various other federal agencies, such as the Environmental
Protection Agency, the Department of Transportation, and
the Department of Health and Human Services, also have a
role in the regulation of radioactive material.
The NRC regulates the management, storage and disposal of
radioactive waste produced as a result of NRC-licensed activities. The agency has entered into agreements with 32 states,
called Agreement States, to allow these states to regulate the
management, storage and disposal of certain nuclear waste.Radioactive Waste: Production, Storage, Disposal
The commercial radioactive waste that is regulated by the
NRC or the Agreement States and that is the subject of this
brochure is of three basic types: high-level waste, mill tailings, and low-level waste.
High-level radioactive waste consists of “irradiated” or used
nuclear reactor fuel (i.e., fuel that has been used in a reactor
to produce electricity). The used reactor fuel is in a solid
form consisting of small fuel pellets in long metal tubes.
Nuclear power plants, such as this Calvert Cliffs plant near Lusby, Maryland, produce electricity and, as a byproduct, produce radioactive waste.Radioactive Waste: Production, Storage, Disposal
Mill tailings wastes are the residues remaining after the processing of natural ore to extract uranium and thorium.
Commercial radioactive wastes that are not high-level wastes
or uranium and thorium milling wastes are classified as lowlevel radioactive waste. The low-level wastes can include
radioactively contaminated protective clothing, tools, filters,
rags, medical tubes, and many other items.
NRC licensees are encouraged to manage their activities so
as to limit the amount of radioactive waste they produce.
Techniques include avoiding the spread of radioactive contamination, surveying items to ensure that they are radioactive before placing them in a radioactive waste container,
using care to avoid mixing contaminated waste with other
trash, using radioactive materials whose radioactivity diminishes quickly and limiting radioactive material usage to the
minimum necessary to establish the objective.
Licensees take steps to reduce the volume of radioactive
waste after it has been produced. Common means are compaction and incineration. Approximately 59 NRC licensees
are authorized to incinerate certain low-level wastes, although
most incineration is performed by a small number of commercial incinerators.
The radioactivity of nuclear waste decreases with the passage of time, through a process called radioactive decay.
(“Radioactivity” refers to the spontaneous disintegration
of an unstable atomic nucleus, usually accompanied by
the emission of ionizing radiation.) The amount of timeRadioactive Waste: Production, Storage, Disposal
necessary to decrease the radioactivity of radioactive material to one-half the original amount is called the radioactive
half-life of the radioactive material. Radioactive waste with a
short half-life is often stored temporarily before disposal in
order to reduce potential radiation doses to workers who
handle and transport the waste, as well as to reduce the radiation levels at disposal sites.
In addition, NRC authorizes some licensees to store shorthalf-lived material until the radioactivity is indistinguishable
from ambient radiation levels, and then dispose of the material as non-radioactive waste.
Currently, there are no permanent disposal facilities in the
United States for high-level nuclear waste; therefore commercial high-level waste (spent fuel) is in temporary storage,
mainly at nuclear power plants.
Most uranium mill tailings are disposed of in place or near
the mill, after constructing a barrier of a material such as clay
on top of the pile to prevent radon from escaping into the
atmosphere and covering the mill tailings pile with soil, rocks
or other materials to prevent erosion.
For low-level waste, three commercial land disposal facilities
are available, but they accept waste only from certain states
or accept only limited types of low-level wastes. The remainder of the low-level waste is stored primarily at the site whereRadioactive Waste: Production, Storage, Disposal
it was produced, such as at hospitals, research facilities, clinics and nuclear power plants.
The following sections of this pamphlet provide separate discussions on high-level and low-level radioactive waste and
This low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Richland, Washington, accepts wastes from the Northwest and Rocky Mountain states.Radioactive Waste: Production, Storage, Disposal
6High-Level Radioactive Waste
High-Level Radioactive Waste
What is high-level waste?
After uranium fuel has been used in a reactor for a while, it is
no longer as efficient in splitting its atoms and producing heat
to make electricity. It is then called “spent” nuclear fuel. About
one-fourth to one-third of the total fuel load is spent and is
removed from the reactor every 12 to 18 months and replaced
with fresh fuel. The spent nuclear fuel is high-level radioactive waste.
What is the role of NRC?
The NRC regulates all commercial reactors in the United
States, including nuclear power plants that produce electricity, and university research reactors. The agency regulates the possession, transportation, storage and disposal
of spent fuel produced by the nuclear reactors.
How hazardous is high-level waste?
Spent nuclear fuel is highly radioactive and potentially very
harmful. Standing near unshielded spent fuel could be fatal
due to the high radiation levels. Ten years after removal of
spent fuel from a reactor, the radiation dose 1 meter away
from a typical spent fuel assembly exceeds 20,000 rems per
hour. A dose of 5,000 rems would be expected to cause
immediate incapacitation and death within one week.High-Level Radioactive Waste
Some of the radioactive elements in spent fuel have short
half-lives (for example, iodine-131 has an 8-day half-life) and
therefore their radioactivity decreases rapidly. However, many
of the radioactive elements in spent fuel have long half-lives.
For example, plutonium-239 has a half-life of 24,000 years,
and plutonium-240 has a half-life of 6,800 years. Because it
contains these long half-lived radioactive elements, spent fuel
must be isolated and controlled for thousands of years.
A second hazard of spent fuel, in addition to high radiation
levels, is the extremely remote possibility of an accidental
“criticality,” or self-sustained fissioning and splitting of the
atoms of uranium and plutonium.
NRC regulations therefore require stringent design, testing
and monitoring in the handling and storage of spent fuel to
ensure that the risk of this type of accident is extremely unlikely. For example, special control materials (usually boron)
are placed in spent fuel containers to prevent a criticality from
occurring. Nuclear engineers and physicists carefully analyze and monitor the conditions of handling and storage of
spent fuel to guard further against an accident.
A barrier or radiation protection shield must always be placed
between spent nuclear fuel and human beings.
Water, concrete, lead, steel, depleted uranium or other suitable materials calculated to be sufficiently protective by trained
engineers and health physicists, and verified by radiation measurements, are typically used as radiation shielding for spent
nuclear fuel.High-Level Radioactive Waste
How and where is the waste stored?
Spent fuel may be stored in either a wet or dry environment.
In addition, it may be stored either at the reactor where it was
used or away from the reactor at another site.
The various techniques are as follows:
Currently most spent nuclear fuel is safely stored in specially
designed pools at individual reactor sites around the country. The water-pool option involves storing spent fuel in rods
under at least 20 feet of water, which provides adequate
Most spent fuel from nuclear power plants is stored under water,
as shown at the Diablo Canyon plant in California.High-Level Radioactive Waste
shielding from the radiation for anyone near the pool. The
rods are moved into the water pools from the reactor along
the bottom of water canals, so that the spent fuel always is
shielded to protect workers.
A typical spent fuel rod is about 12 feet long and 3/4 inch in
diameter. The rods are arranged in somewhat square arrays,
known as fuel assemblies, that range in size from an array of 6
rods by 6 rods to an array of 17 rods by 17 rods. The fuel pools
vary in size from a capacity of 216 to 8,083 fuel assemblies.
Most pools were originally designed to store several years
worth of spent fuel. Due to delays in developing disposal
facilities for the spent fuel, licensees have redesigned and
rebuilt equipment in the pools over the years to allow a greater
number of spent fuel rods to be stored. However, this storage option is limited by the size of the spent fuel pool and
the need to keep individual fuel rods from getting too close
to other rods and initiating a criticality or nuclear reaction.
If pool capacity is reached, licensees may move toward use
of above-ground dry storage casks. The first dry storage
installation was licensed by the NRC in 1986. In this method,
spent fuel is surrounded by inert gas inside a container
called a cask. The casks can be made of metal or concrete, and some can be used for both storage and transportation. They are either placed horizontally or stand
vertically on a concrete pad.
Seventeen nuclear power plants are currently storing spent
fuel under the dry storage option.High-Level Radioactive Waste
Spent fuel may be stored in dry casks either horizontally, as shown
at the H.B. Robinson nuclear power plant in South Carolina, or vertically, as shown at the Surry nuclear power plant in Virginia.High-Level Radioactive Waste
General Electric Company has a facility to store spent fuel
away from reactors, using the wet storage pool technology,
at Morris, Illinois. GE received a license to receive and store
nuclear material at this facility in 1971. The facility is essentially full, and the company has completed contracts with specific utilities (under which it had agreed to accept their used
fuel) and has no plans to accept additional spent fuel.
Both pool storage and dry storage are safe methods, but there
are significant differences. Pool storage requires a greater
and more consistent operational vigilance on the part of utilities or other licensees and the satisfactory performance of
many mechanical systems using pumps, piping and instrumentation.
Dry storage, which is almost completely passive, is simpler,
uses fewer support systems and offers fewer opportunities
for things to go wrong through human or mechanical error.
Dry storage is not suitable for fuel until the fuel has been out
of the reactor for a few years and the amount of heat generated by radioactive decay has been reduced.
Monitored Retrievable Storage
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 authorized
the Department of Energy (DOE) to construct a monitored
retrievable storage (MRS) facility for storage of high-level
waste, with certain restrictions.High-Level Radioactive Waste
Representatives of state and local governments and Indian
tribes and members of the public would be invited to participate in meetings on an MRS facility.
NRC would publish notice of receipt of DOE’s application to
build an MRS facility and hold a public hearing, if requested,
before issuance of the license.
How much high-level waste is there?
About 160,000 spent fuel assemblies, containing 45,000 tons
of spent fuel from nuclear power plants, are currently in storage in the United States. Of these, about 156,500 assemblies are stored at nuclear power plants, and approximately
3,500 assemblies are stored at away-from-reactor storage
facilities, such as the General Electric plant at Morris, Illinois. The vast majority of the assemblies are stored in water
pools, and less than 5% are stored in dry casks.
About 7,800 used fuel assemblies are taken out of reactors
each year and are stored until a disposal facility becomes
If all the 160,000 spent fuel assemblies currently in storage
were assembled in one place, they would only cover a football field about 5 1/2 yards high.High-Level Radioactive Waste
How and where will the high-level waste be
DOE is developing plans for a permanent disposal facility for
spent fuel from nuclear power plants (as well as for the highlevel waste that has been produced by the nation’s nuclear weapons production activities).
Congress has directed DOE to focus on a proposed site at
Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the disposal facility. This has
aroused some controversy, particularly with state and local
Studies are still underway to determine if the site is adequate
for permanent disposal of the high-level waste. NRC has a
rigorous regulatory program for review of these ongoing DOE
DOE would design, build and operate the facility, subject to
federal regulations and oversight by the NRC. The NRC must
approve the site and design for the disposal facility, as well
as inspect it during construction and operation.High-Level Radioactive Waste
Once DOE submits an application to construct a repository,
the NWPA calls for NRC to complete its review within three
If the NRC authorizes construction, DOE will proceed with
constructing the repository and would submit a license application update (containing additional details on design and
construction of the facility) to the NRC. This would be followed by an NRC decision on whether to license operation
of the repository.
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act directed the Department of Energy to
study Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it would be
suitable for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.High-Level Radioactive Waste
NRC Safety Requirements
As required by the NWPA, the NRC has issued technical requirements and criteria for approving or disapproving DOE’s
application. These are contained in Part 60 of the NRC’s
regulations. Examples include:
■ Radiation doses during repository operations must be kept
below regulatory limits. These limits are 100 millirems per
year for members of the general public (which is about a
third of the average American’s annual dose from nature)
and 5,000 millirems per year for workers.
■ Waste must be retrievable for 50 years after waste emplacement begins.
■ The container in which the high-level waste will be placed
must maintain its integrity for 300 to 1,000 years.
■ The waste packages must not contain explosive or flammable
materials or liquids that could endanger the repository.
Representatives of state and local governments and Indian
tribes are invited to participate in meetings on the high-level
waste repository. Members of the public may attend as observers.
NRC will publish notice of receipt of DOE’s application to
build a repository and hold a public hearing before issuance
of the construction authorization. When DOE submits an
application to receive and possess high-level waste at theHigh-Level Radioactive Waste
LM-300 drill rig at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, obtained underground
rock and soil samples that scientists examined to help determine
site suitability for high-level waste disposal.High-Level Radioactive Waste
facility, NRC will again announce receipt of the application
and will publish notice of the opportunity for an optional additional public hearing.
The NRC has established an Internet web site to inform interested parties of upcoming meetings, including those on
radioactive waste. The address is http://www.nrc.gov/publicinvolve/public-meetings.html on the Internet. Members of the
public who do not have access to the Internet may obtain
information on public meetings by calling 800-397-4209.
Tunnel boring machine excavated Yucca Mountain to allow analysis of underground conditions and suitability of site for high-level
waste disposal.Low-Level Radioactive Waste
Low-Level Radioactive Waste
What is low-level waste?
Low-level radioactive waste includes items that have become
contaminated with radioactive material or have become radioactive through exposure to neutron radiation. This waste
is typically contaminated protective shoe covers and clothing, wiping rags, mops, filters, reactor water treatment residues, equipment and tools, luminous dials, medical tubes,
swabs, injection needles, syringes, and laboratory animal carcasses and tissues. The most intensely radioactive wastes
are typically found in the water treatment residues, discarded
parts from nuclear reactors and small gauges containing radioactive material.
This chart shows the volume of low-level waste received at U.S.
disposal facilities from 1985 to 1998.
VOLUME (Thousands of Cubic Feet)
1985 1991 1992 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1993 1994 1995
1,419Low-Level Radioactive Waste
The NRC has adopted a waste classification system for lowlevel radioactive waste based on its potential hazards, and
has specified disposal and waste form requirements for each
of the general classes of waste: Class A, Class B and Class
C waste. Although the classification of waste can be complex, Class A waste generally contains lower concentrations
of long half-lived radioactive material than Class B
and C wastes.
Where does low-level waste come from?
In 1998, low-level waste disposal facilities received about
1,419 thousand cubic feet of commercially generated radioactive waste. Of this 14.8% came from nuclear reactors, 6.7%
from industrial users, 2% from government sources (other
than nuclear weapons sites), 0.3% from academic users,
0.1% from medical facilities, and the rest was undefined.
During normal operation of a nuclear reactor, some small
amounts of radioactive material may be released into, or produced in, the water surrounding the fuel. Although reactor
operators clean the water by using filters and resins, some
of this material contaminates internal reactor components,
such as pipes, pumps, valves, and filters, and other objects
such as tools and equipment. Radiation from the reactor
also produces radioactive waste that is removed when the
reactor is decommissioned.Low-Level Radioactive Waste
To protect themselves, workers in contaminated areas at the
power plants must sometimes wear protective gloves, clothing and, occasionally, respiratory equipment, which in turn
could become contaminated.
These items become low-level waste, unless they are decontaminated. The filters and resins used to separate radioactive materials from water are also low-level waste. When
the contaminated objects are no longer in use, they are placed
in a specially marked low-level waste container for storage
This chart shows the amount of low-level radioactive waste (in cubic
feet) received from various sources in 1998 at U.S. disposal facilities.
Total Amount Received –
1,419 thousand cubic feetLow-Level Radioactive Waste
At medical facilities, radioactive materials are used in numerous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for patients.
During these procedures, test tubes, syringes, bottles, tubing and other objects come into contact with radioactive material. Some of the material remains in the objects,
In medical research, laboratory animals are sometimes injected with radioactive material for research purposes to combat diseases, such as AIDS and cancer. The animal
carcasses containing the radioactive material become lowlevel radioactive waste and must be handled appropriately.
Hospitals may store waste containing radioactive material with
short half lives until it decays to background radiation levels
for ultimate disposal with non-radioactive medical waste.
Waste containing longer-lived radioactive material is stored or
sent to a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility.
Industry and Research Institutes
Commercial and industrial firms use radioactive materials
to measure the thickness, density or volume of materials;
to determine the age of prehistoric and geological objects;
to examine welds and structures for flaws; to analyze wells
for oil and gas exploration; and for various other types of
research and development.
During research and chemical analysis, test tubes, bottles,
tubing and process equipment come into contact with theLow-Level Radioactive Waste
Use of nuclear materials for a variety of purposes, such as in exit
signs, research, smoke detectors, and medicine, results in the production of nuclear waste.
NUCLEAR MATERIALS USED IN
SOME EVERYDAY THINGS:Low-Level Radioactive Waste
radioactive material, become contaminated and are classified as low-level waste. Waste may also be produced during
the manufacture of devices, such as certain gauges, luminous watches, exit signs and smoke detectors, that contain
What is the role of NRC?
The NRC regulates about 4,900 licenses for the possession
and use of radioactive materials. In addition, 32 Agreement
States regulate approximately 16,250 radioactive materials licenses. Agreement States are those states that have accepted
responsibility, through agreement with the NRC, over the licensing of radioactive materials within their state.
The NRC and the Agreement States oversee licensees’ management and disposal of radioactive waste products.
How hazardous is low-level waste?
The danger of exposure to radiation in low-level radioactive
waste varies widely according to the types and concentration of radioactive material contained in the waste. Lowlevel waste containing some radioactive materials used in
medical research, for example, is not particularly hazardous
unless inhaled or consumed, and a person can stand near it
without shielding. Low-level waste from processing water at
a reactor, on the other hand, may be quite hazardous. For
example, low-level waste could cause exposures that could
lead to death or an increased risk of cancer.Low-Level Radioactive Waste
How is low-level waste stored?
Storage of low-level radioactive waste requires an NRC or
Agreement State license. NRC or Agreement State regulations require the waste to be stored in a manner that keeps
radiation doses to workers and members of the public below
NRC-specified levels. Licensees must further reduce these
doses to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Actual doses, in most cases, are a small fraction of the NRC
Low-level radioactive waste is packaged in containers appropriate to its level of hazard. Some low-level radioactive
wastes require shielding with lead, concrete or other materials to protect workers and members of the public.
Workers are trained to maintain a safe distance from the more
highly radioactive materials, to limit the amount of time they
spend near the materials, and to monitor the waste to detect
Nuclear power plants may store waste in special buildings
that provide an extra degree of shielding. Safe distances
must be maintained between the buildings containing radioactive material and the fence restricting public access to licensee property.
Hospitals typically keep their waste stored in special containers or separate rooms.
Radioactive waste storage areas are posted to identify the
radioactive waste so that workers and the public will not inadvertently enter the area.Low-Level Radioactive Waste
Low-level waste may be stored to allow short-lived radionuclides to decay to innocuous levels and to provide safekeeping when access to disposal sites is not available.
The NRC believes storage can be safe over the short
term as an interim measure, but favors disposal rather
than storage over the long term.
How and where is low-level waste
There are two low-level disposal facilities that accept a broad
range of low-level wastes. They are located in Barnwell,
South Carolina, and Richland, Washington.
This low-level waste disposal facility in Barnwell, South Carolina,
buries waste underground.Low-Level Radioactive Waste
In addition, Envirocare of Utah is licensed by the NRC to
operate a facility near Clive, Utah, for disposal of uranium
and thorium mill tailings. The facility also accepts certain
other radioactive wastes under a State of Utah license. It
primarily accepts low-level waste with small concentrations
of radioactive material that are generated after a facility shuts
down permanently and needs to remove a large bulk of contaminated material—such as contaminated soil or debris
from demolished buildings—in preparation for license termination.
Four former low-level radioactive waste disposal sites are
closed and no longer accept wastes. They are located in or
near Sheffield, Illinois; Morehead, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada;
and West Valley, New York.
The low-level wastes at the Barnwell and Richland facilities
and the four closed sites are or will be buried under several
feet of soil in near-surface shallow trenches, usually in the
containers in which they were shipped.
Laws and Regulations
The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of
1985 made the states responsible for low-level radioactive waste
disposal. It encouraged the states to enter into compacts that
would allow several states to dispose of waste at a joint
disposal facility. Most states have entered into compacts.
However, to date no new disposal facilities have been built.
NRC and state regulations establish requirements for the siting, design and operation of disposal facilities, including bufferLow-Level Radioactive Waste
Various states have banded together in low-level waste compacts, with a plan to have one disposal facility per compact in
Operating LLW Disposal Sites
Note: National LLW volume for
1998 = 1,419 thousand cubic feet disposed29
Low-Level Radioactive Waste
a selected host state. Currently the operational disposal sites
are located in South Carolina, Utah and Washington.
DCLow-Level Radioactive Waste
zones of land surrounding and under the waste to permit
monitoring and possible corrective actions.
When a disposal facility ceases operations, a post-closure
period of maintenance and monitoring is required to confirm
that the closed site is safely performing as expected before
transfer to a government custodial agency for long-term control. Access to the site may be restricted for a long time, but
NRC and state regulations do not allow reliance on institutional controls after 100 years following site closure. After
100 years, passive controls, such as custodial care, waste
markers and land records, will be relied on to prevent disturbance of the emplaced waste.
NRC and state procedures for development of a new lowlevel waste disposal facility provide several opportunities for
public involvement, including:
■ Public review and comment on a license application;
■ Participation in the license review by the state or tribal
■ Public review and comment on the required draft environmental impact statement;
■ An opportunity for public hearings on the initial license and
■ Attendance at any of the NRC’s meetings with the license
Tailing wastes are generated during the milling of certain ores
to extract uranium and thorium. These wastes have relatively low concentrations of radioactive materials with long
half-lives. Tailings contain radium (which, through radioactive decay, becomes radon), thorium, and small residual
amounts of uranium that were not extracted during the milling process.
The Rio Algom uranium mill and tailings site in Utah is undergoing
Most uranium mill tailings are located in
the western United States—at the locations shown on the map.
LOCATIONS OF URANIUM MILL TAILINGS SITES
The Office of Surface Mining, U.S. Department of Interior
and individual states regulate mining. NRC regulates milling
and the disposal of tailings in non-Agreement States, while
State agencies regulate these activities in Agreement States
when the agreement specifically includes tailings.
Mill tailings consist of fine-grained, sand-like and silty materials, usually deposited in large piles next to the mill that processed the ore. Uranium mills are located principally in the
western United States, where deposits of uranium ore are
more plentiful.Mill Tailings
NRC requires licensees to meet Environmental Protection
Agency standards for cleanup of uranium and thorium mill
sites after the milling operations have permanently closed.
This includes requirements for long-term stability of the mill
tailings piles, radon emissions control, water quality protection and cleanup, and cleanup of lands and buildings.
NRC regulations require that a cover be placed over the mill
tailings to control the release of radon gases at the end of
milling operations. The cover must be effective in controlling
radon releases for 1,000 years to the extent reasonably
achievable and, in any case, for no less than 200 years.
The uranium mill tailings contain chemical and radiological
material discarded from the mill. Radium and thorium, which
are the dominant radioactive materials in mill tailings, have
long half-lives (1,600 and 77,000 years respectively). Therefore Congress requires perpetual government custody of the
tailings disposal sites.Radioactive Waste: Production, Storage, Disposal
For Additional Information Contact:
Office of Public Affairs—Headquarters
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Washington, DC 20555
Regional Public Affairs Offices
Region I 475 Allendale Road
King of Prussia, PA 19406-1415
Region II 61 Forsyth Street
Suite 23 T85
Atlanta, GA 30303-3415
Region III 801 Warrenville Road
Lisle, IL 60532-4351
Region IV 611 Ryan Plaza Drive
Arlington, TX 76011-8064
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